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英语语法之代词10-复合不定代词

复合不定代词的用法
复合不定代词包括 something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone, nothing, nobody, no one, everything, everybody, everyone 等。它们在句中可用作主语、宾语或表语,但不能用作定语。something, someone 等和 anything, anyone等的区别与 some 和 any 的区别一样,前者一般用于肯定句,后者一般用于否定句、疑问句或条件句。
1. 形容词和else修饰复合不定代词时,要放在它们的后面。如:
There is nothing wrong with my car. 我的车没有毛病。
Have you seen anyone [anybody] famous?  你见过名人吗?
Anything else? 还有什么吗?
2. 指人的复合不定代词若用作主语,其谓语动词一般用单数,相应的人称代词和物主代词也用单数 he, him, his (不一定指男性)。但在非正式文体中常用复数代词 they, them, their:
Everyone knows this, doesn’t he [don’t they]? 人人都知道这一点,不是吗?
If anybody [anyone] comes, ask him [them] to come to my office. 要是有人来,让他来我的办公室。
3. 指事物的复合不定代词若用作主语,谓语动词用单数. 如:
Everything is good, isn’t it?  一切都很好,是吗?
There is something wrong with my bike. 我的自行车有问题了。
4. 不定代词 anyone, everyone 等只能指人,不能指物,且其后一般不接of 短语。若是指物或后接 of 短语,可用 any one (分开写), every one (分开写):如;
any one of the boys 孩子们当中的任何一个
Any one of the books 书中的任何一本
every one of the students  每一个学生
Every one of the schools  每一所学校
 
No one/nobody  vs.  None  vs.  Nothing
no one / nobody 常用来指人,作主语时谓语动词要用单数形式;nothing 常用来指物,作主语时谓语动词也要用单数形式;none 可指人也可指物,作主语时,如和 of 连用指不可数名词时,谓语动词要用单数形式;指可数名词时,谓语动词用单、复数均可。如:
No one likes a person with bad manners.
Nothing is difficult in the world if you put your heart into it.
None of them has / have seen me before.
None of the money belongs to me.
注:
none 可用来回答 How many / much…引导的特殊疑问句;而 no one/nobody 用来回答 Who…引导的疑问句:nothing 用来回答 What…引导的疑问句。如:
— How many birds are there in the tree?— None.
— What is in the box?              — Nothing.
— Who is in the classroom?         — No one / Nobody.
扩展:no one语气比nobody 强点,意思一样,“没有人”。但nobody还可以表示“无关紧要的人”。如:
He wants to be famous. He is tired of being nobody. 他想出名,他厌倦了当无名小卒。