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英语语法之代词04-反身代词和指示代词

反身代词
myself, yourself , himself, itself, yourselves, ,themselves , ourselves
1. 反身代词主要用于加强被修饰词的语气,可紧放在被修饰名词后或句末。如:
He himself was a doctor. 他本人就是一位医生。
That poor boy was myself.那个可怜的孩子就是我自己。
注:反身代词用于 be, feel, seem, look 等后表示身体或精神处于正常状态。如:
I'll be myself again soon. 我一会儿就会好的。
He is not himself today.  他今天身体不大舒服。
2. 表示独立完成某事,亲自做某事。如:
call oneself …     make oneself …      cook oneself… 
把自己称为…      为自己做了…       为自己作了… 吃
3. 反身代词的固定搭配
for oneself         by oneself      teach/learn oneself 
亲自               独自             自学
hurt oneself        be pleased with oneself
弄伤自己            对自己感到高兴
can’t help oneself               help oneself to…
忍不住,无法控制自己          随便吃,为自己取(食物等)

指示代词
指示代词主要有四个,即this, that, these 和 those。
1. this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that和those则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人。如:
  This is a pen and that is a pencil. These are my apples and those are yours.
2. 为避免重复,可用 that 和 those 代替前面提到的名词。如:
The weather in Beijing is warmer than that in Shanghai. (that=weather)
Televisions made in China are just as good as those made in Japan.(those=televisions)
3. 用来回指上文提到的事情时,可用this 或 that,但是若要指下文叙述的事情,通常要用 this。如:
He didn’t pass the exam. That made him very upset. 他没有通过考试。那让他很沮丧。
I want to tell you this: you are stupid. 我想告诉你这个:你很蠢。
4. 在打电话时,通常用 this 指自己,用that指对方:
Hello. This is Tom. Is that Mike? 喂,我是汤姆,你是麦克吗?
5. 除用作代词外,this 和that 还可用作副词,用以修饰形容词或副词,意为“这么”、“那么”,相当于 so。如:
I've done only that much. 我所做的就这么多。
Is she always this busy? 她总是这么忙吗?

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