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英语语法入门之介词02

表示地点的介词:
 
1.  at , in
at (1)表示在小地方; (2)表示“在……附近,旁边”;如:
I’m at the library/the bus station.    The baby is at the table.
in (1)表示在大地方; (2)表示“在…范围之内”;如:
In China     In Beijing     in the classroom   
 
2. 表示“在…之上或之下”的on, over, above 及它们的反义词“在...之下”的beneath, under, below.
(1)On表示接触的上方,over表示不接触的正上方,above表示不接触的斜上方。如:
The bird is on the desk.
The bird is over the desk.
The bird is above the desk.
 
over还可表示“越过”“覆盖”“遍布”“超过”“高于,多于”之意。如:
Over the mountain, there is a river.
Put your hand over your mouth.= Cover your mouth with your hand.
The tree is over ten meters.
There’s a cloth over the table.
 
Above还表示“高于”“温度,海拔的高于”“头衔,名次,影响力的高于”。如”
There’s a mole above his left knee.
The temperature today is ten degrees above zero.
That mountain is over 10000 feet above sea level.
My rank is above yours, so you must do what I say.
Your power can not be above the law.
 
(2)  Under通常表示“在...正下方”“少于,低于”,  “在...的作用下,影响下,环境下”如:
There’s a cat under the bed.
We sometimes sleep under the stars in summer.
He is under 12.
The dress was sold under 100.
Under the circumstance, they don’t know what to do.
 
Beneath表示“有接触的在...之下”,“隐藏在...之下”,“在尊严,人格,能力等之下”
She can feel the sand beneath her feet.
She slept beneath the rug.
Below the bright smile, she was angry.
His mother felt he was marring beneath himself.
I can’t believe you could do such a thing. It’s beneath you.
 
Below表示“在...之下”“低于,少于”, “头衔,名次,影响力的高于”“温度,海拔的低于”。如:
Test scores below 60 are as a failure.
I can hear two people talking below my window.
My rank is below yours.
The temperature today is below zero.

3. 表示方位的介词:in、on、to
In表示A在B的里面,译为“在…内”,on表示A与B接壤,相邻,译为“与…相邻”,to表示A在   B的外面,不接壤,译为“在…之外,不相邻”。如:
Beijing is in the north of China.
Beijing is on the northwest of Tianjin.
Beijing is to the northwest of Shanghai.
 
4. 表示“里,外”的in,into,inside,outside,out of
in表示“在…内”,有静止之意,inside表示“在…里面”,强调“以…为界”,大多数时候可以和in互换: into表示动作的方向,意为“到…内”.如:
He is in the room.
He is inside the room.
He rushes into the room.
 
outside是inside的反义词,表示“在…外面”,out of 是into的反义词,表示“到…外”。 如:
We mustn’t look out of the window when we are in a car.
Please wait outside the office.
 
扩展:out of还表示 “由于” “用…(材料)” “来自…”.如:
He made a plane out of paper.
He hit him out of anger.
 
5. 表示“前,后”的介词
⑴in front of ,in the front of,before 表示“在…之前”,before=in front of
in front of  = before表示“在某一范围之外的前面”
in the front of表示“在某一范围之内的前部”
She is in the front of the bus.
She is in front of the bus.
 
⑵at the back of,behind,after 均有“在…之后”之意,at the back of是in the front of的反
义词,表示“在某一范围之内的后部”; behind是in front of的反义词,表示“在某一范围之外的后
面”; After侧重于时间的先后,after也可以放在表示运动的词的后面,表示动作发生的先后。
而behind侧重于位置的先后,behind也表示“背着,隐藏在后”的含义。如:
He is at the back of the bus.
He is behind the bus.
Don’t speak evil of a man behind his back.
After 10 pm., I can’t go out.
Day after day, year after year.  One thing after another.
Tom is walking after his dog.

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