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英语语法之形容词和副词02

形容词和副词 
副词
副词是用来修饰动词、形容词、其他副词或整个句子,有时也能修饰名词,表示时间、地点、方式、程度、动作、频度等,在句中主要用作状语。
副词修饰动词时,告诉我们动作是怎样进行的,什么时候进行或者在什么地方发生的,一般位于动词之后。如:
They finished their homework quickly yesterday. 
We should study hard.
副词修饰形容词或副词时,则告诉我们这些形容词或副词的程度如何,副词一般位于这些词前。 如:
Yao Ming is quite tall.
My father plays basketball very well.
一、副词的分类
(1)时间副词
①表示大体时间:now,then,yesterday,today,tonight,before,just now,recently,so far, up to now
②表示频率:always,usually,often,sometimes.seldom,never
③其它作用:already,yet,late,early,soon,at once,immediately,at first,at last,finally
(2)地点副词
①表地点:here,there,home,abroad,upstairs,downstairs,anywhere,everywhere,nowhere,somewhere
②表位置关系(后接宾语时,用作介词):above,below,round,around,down,up,in,out,inside,outside,across,back,along,over,away,near,off, past
(3)方式副词表示谓语动词“怎样地”,(此类副词大部分由形容词加ly 构成):
badly,bravely,gratefully,calmly,carefully,carelessly,nervously,proudly,patiently,politely,sadly,properly,rapidly,wrongly,suddenly
(4)程度副词多数用来修饰形容词或副词:much,(a)little,a bit,very,so,too,enough,quite, rather,completely,terribly,deeply,nearly,almost,hardly
(5)疑问副词构成特殊疑问句:how,when, where,why
(6)连接副词连接主语、宾语或表语从句:how,when,where,why
(7)关系副词引导定语从句:when,where,why
(8)其它性质的副词对整个句子进行说明,一般用逗号与主句隔开:frankly(坦率地说,说真的),generally(一般说来),luckily(幸运地是),等。
 
二、副词的功能
1. 用作状语。如:
He speaks English very well. 他英语说得很好。
I often get up at six in the morning. 我经常是在早晨6 点钟起床。
2. 用作表语。如:
I’ll be back in five minutes. 我五分钟就回来。
I must be off now. 我现在得走了。
在一般情况下,作表语时不用副词而用形容词
误:He looks very angrily. 正:He looks very angry. 他看上去很生气。
误:  She is very carefully. 正:She is very careful. 史密斯先生很仔细。
 
三、副词的位置
1. 一般副词的位置
在许多情况下,副词都放在所修饰的动词后面或句末。如:
The girl dances very well. 这个女孩跳舞跳得好。
We must work hard. 我们必须努力工作。
He does his work very carefully. 他做工作非常仔细。
有时也放在主语后面,谓语动词前面(对动作加以强调)。如:
He angrily closed the door. 他生气地把门关上了。
置于句中的副词,若碰上助动词,则通常放在助动词之后、主要动词之前:
He has just left for work. 他刚刚离开去上班。
We have already read the book. 我们都已读过这本书。
2. 频度副词在句中的位置
频度副词表示动作发生的次数,常见的有ever, never, seldom, sometimes, often, always 等,它们通常位于实意动词之前,动词be、助动词、情态动词之后。如:
He never reads such books. 他从不看那样的书。
He often comes to school late. / He is often late for school. 他上学常迟到。
3. 副词位置对句意的影响
有时副词位置的不同会导致句子意义的改变。如:
Tom alone is coming. 只有汤姆要来。(alone 位于被修饰的名词后,意为“只有”)
Tom is coming alone. 汤姆将一个人来。(alone 在此修饰动词come,意为“独自”)
Only I kissed her last night. 昨晚只有我吻了她(即别人没吻她)。
I only kissed her last night. 昨晚我只是吻了她(即没干别的事)。
I kissed only her last night. 昨晚我吻的只有她(即没吻过别人)。
I kissed her only last night . 我只是在昨晚才吻了她(即其他时候未吻过)。
They secretly decided to leave the town. 他们秘密决定离开这个城市。
They decided to leave the town secretly. 他们决定秘密地离开这个城市。


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