主页 > 高中 > 高考真题 > 2016年北京高考英语阅读理解D篇翻译与讲解

2016年北京高考英语阅读理解D篇翻译与讲解

本文通过分析当前大学存在的问题,由于当今科技的发展,大学生与家庭的联系比以前频繁,因此缺乏大学生本该有的独立性。并论证了大学在培养学生自主性和成年人个人认知方面的重要作用及遇到的问题,以及大学教育应该考虑到的问题。

2016年北京高考英语阅读理解D篇
Why College Is Not Home 
为什么大学不是家?
      The college years are supposed to be a time for important growth in autonomy(自主性) and the development of adult identity. However, now they are becoming an extended period of adolescence, during which many of today’s students  are not shouldered with adult responsibilities. 
      大学几年应该是培养学生自主性和成年人身份认知的重要时期。然而,现在大学正在变成青春期的延长期,当今的许多大学生在这几年无法肩负起成年人的责任感。
      For previous generations, college was decisive break from parental control; guidance and support needed to come  from people of the same age and from within. In the past two decades, however, continued connection with and dependence on family, thanks to cellphones, email and social media, have increased significantly. Some parents go so far as to help with coursework. Instead of promoting the idea of college as a passage from the shelter of the family to autonomy and adult responsibility, universities have given in to the idea that they should provide the same environment as that of the home. 
      对于前几代人来说,大学是他们脱离父母控制的决定性时期。可以从同辈人和自身得到指导和支持。然而,在过去的二十年里,由于手机,电子邮件和社交媒体的使用,大学生与家人的联系和依赖显著增长。一些家长甚至帮助做课程作业。大学没有做到宣扬大学阶段是学生从家庭的庇护到自主性和成年人的责任的一段行程,相反,他们屈服于了这个想法,那就是大学应该提供与家庭一样的环境。
      To prepare for increased autonomy and responsibility, college needs to be a time of exploration and experimentation. This process involves “trying on ” new ways of thinking about oneself both intellectually(在思维方面) and personally. While we should provide “safe spaces” within colleges, we must also make it safe to express opinions and challenge majority views. Intellectual growth and flexibility are fostered by strict debate and questioning. 
      为了提高学生的自主性和责任感做好准备,大学应该是一个探究和实验的时期。这个过程涉及“尝试”思考新的方式,无论是在在思维方面还是在自身方面。当我们在大学校园内给学生提供“安全的空间”同时,我们也必须让学生感到安全的去表达观点和挑战众人的观念。严谨的辩证思想和怀疑能提高人的思维和可塑性。
      Learning to deal with the social world is equally important. Because a college community(群体) differs from the family, many students will struggle to find a sense of belonging. If students rely on administrators to regulate their social behavior and thinking pattern, they are not facing the challenge of finding an identity within a larger and complex community. 
      学会和社会生活打交道也同样重要。因为大学群体不同于家庭。很多学生会努力去寻求归属感。如果学生依赖于管理者去监管他们的社会行为和思考模式,他们就没能在一个更广阔更复杂的社会里面临寻找自我的挑战。
      Moreover, the tendency for universities to monitor and shape student behavior runs up against another characteristic of young adults: the response to being controlled by their elders. If acceptable social behavior is too strictly defined(规定) and controlled, the insensitive or aggressive behavior that administrators are seeking to minimize may actually be encouraged. 
      再者,大学监督和塑造学生行为时往往和年轻人的一个特征相冲突,那就是对受长辈控制的反应。如果过于严格的规定可为人接受的社会行为,实际上可能会激发麻木不仁或者攻击性的行为,这些都是管理者谋求降到最低的。
      It is not surprising that young people are likely to burst out, particularly when there are reasons to do so. Our generation once joined hands and stood firm at times of national emergency. What is lacking today is the conflict between adolescent’s desire for autonomy and their understanding of an unsafe world. Therefore, there is the desire for their dorms to be replacement homes and not places to experience intellectual growth. 
      年轻人可能爆发是不令人意外的,尤其是当有原因促使他们爆发时。我们这一代人在国家面临非常时刻时曾手拉手团结在一起,非常坚定。当今缺少的是青少年对独立自主的渴望与他们对不安全的世界的理解之间的冲突。因此,他们渴望把宿舍视为家的替代品,而不是经历思维发展的地方。
      Every college discussion about community values, social climate and behavior should include recognition of the developmental importance of student autonomy and self-regulation, of the necessary tension between safety and self-discovery. 
      每一所大学对社会价值,社会风气和行为的探讨都应该包括认可发展学生自主性和自我规范的重要性,及安全性与自我发现之间不可避免的矛盾。